論文發表 Paper Presentation 

 

鄭毓瑜 Yu-yu Chen

 

〈俯仰:一個隱喻的完成〉

 

楊牧博通中西學,詩作尤顯現其精深細密的學養,已經有許多研究從其用字遣詞、表現方式或各式主義理論加以疏釋。本文則希望追蹤一個「川流―時間」的隱喻,在楊牧詩中的發展與實現;透過「人與逝水」、「必然與偶然」、「時間與真理」三個步驟,呈現詩人在「詩」與「思」之間的來往交涉,從而體悟「規範時間」的「詩真理」。

 

 

“Looking Up and Down: Tracing the Development of a Metaphor”

 

Yang Mu’s scholarship encompasses Chinese and Western literature. His poetry, rich in intricate allusions, demonstrates his unfathomable learnedness. It has attracted numerous critical attentions aiming at unraveling Yang Mu’s verbal art and unique ways of expression from various theoretical approaches.  This essay attempts to trace and retrieve the development of a metaphor in his poems which “figures time as a running stream.”  From the following three aspects:  “Man and the Elusive River,’ “Necessity and Chance,” and “Time and Truth,” the essay proposes to lay bare step by step how the poet moves and negotiates between poetry and ideas, and eventually envisions “the poetic truth” that “helps define and refine time.”

 

 

 

王家新  Jiaxin Wang 

 

〈“我們怎能自舞辯識舞者?”—楊牧與葉芝〉

 

在現代漢語詩歌的史冊上,馮至之於里爾克,穆旦之於奧登,都已構成了“光輝的對稱”,他們不僅以其優異的翻譯,也以一生的創作,和這些偉大詩人構成了相互依存、相互對話和映照的關係。現在,在我看來,楊牧之于葉芝,也具有了這種“對稱”的性質和意味。早在美國留學及任教期間,楊牧即開始翻譯葉芝。葉芝的高貴神采、精英氣質、神秘主義,葉芝對一個永恆世界的語言塑造及其對自己一生進行“錘煉統一”的不懈努力,都深刻影響了楊牧,而他對葉芝的傾心翻譯,也獨具功力和神采,不僅在漢語中重塑了葉芝,也具有高度的詩學價值。本文擬具體剖析葉芝對楊牧的影響及楊牧對葉芝的翻譯。

 

 

“How can we know the dancer from the dance?”—Yang Mu and W. B. Yeats

 

In the history of Chinese modern poetry, Fengzhi is often associated with Rilke and so is Mudan with W. H. Auden to form a kind of “glorious symmetry.” They achieved such an interdependent, dialogic, and mutually illuminating relation with the great poets of the West not merely through their outstanding translation but also by their own lifelong creative endeavors. Now, as I perceive it, Yang Mu has also attained such a “symmetrical” kinship with W. B. Yeats.  As early as when he went abroad to study and then teach in college, Yang Mu has started to translate Yeats’s poems. Yeats’s aristocratic demeanor, elitism, his aspiration to fashion an eternal realm through language, and his persistent quest for bringing “a well-wrought unity” into being – all of these have exerted a deep influence on Yang Mu, who in turn dedicated himself to translating Yeats.  Uniquely enriched with his own erudition and elegant style, Yang Mu’s translation not only imparts a Chinese countenance to Yeats but has acquired estimably its own poetic value. This essay attempts to look into Yeats’s influence on Yang Mu and Yang Mu’s translation of Yeats.

 

 

 

王明端  Mingduan Wang/王國璽 Guoxi Wang

 

〈《普林士頓的夏天》劇作介紹及賞析〉

 

作品介绍:1979 年七月至十月間,臺灣文學家楊牧先生撰寫了三篇散文:《普林士頓的秋天》《普林士頓的冬天》《普林士頓的春天》,收錄於《搜索者》一書。(《搜索者》1999 年入選臺灣文學經典三十部)楊牧先生以飽滿豐厚的學識、從容自在的情調,記錄下生命中最寧靜最充滿自信的回憶。幾近四十年後,我們不揣冒昧,以戲劇之形態來重演文學之情態。置身數位化社會紛繁亂象,拾取文心寸縷,妄圖以當下人事叩擊歷史古意。借助聲音、文本、空間三者的撞擊,啟動遠遁的經年舊事,接續塵去的氣度見識,由是乃有《普林士頓的夏天》產生。

 

 

“Introducing Summer of Princeton, a Play Inspired by Yang Mu’s Prose”

 

The Searching One (《搜索者》), selected as one of the classic Taiwan Literary Works in 1999, includes three pieces of prose written by Yang Mu from July to October in 1979. They are “Autumn of Princeton ,” “Winter of Princeton,” and “Spring of Princeton.” These pieces, written in a calm tone and reflecting Yang Mu’s eruditeness, are his recollections in quiet confidence of his sojourn at Princeton as visiting professor. Almost forty years later, in a spirit of reverent emulation, we tried to transform his literary sensibility into theater. We attempted to create a dialogue between the present digital world we live in and the past Yang wrote about. Summer of Princeton creates the clash between sound, text, and space so that the old memories are evoked and the extraordinary open-mindedness and knowledge of Yang Mu is inherited and passed on.

 

 

張期達  Chi-ta Chang

 

〈楊牧的涉事,疑神及其他〉

 

臺灣學界對楊牧詩文的討論裏,本文以為《疑神》(1993),應得更多矚目。原因除楊牧《疑神》自身繁複的美學編碼,尚未得到充分解譯,也在於該書表露的,無非一知識分子勇於挑戰權威的浮士德精神,而這點同樣有待論述以證明,突出。本文認為適當地理解《疑神》,將助益讀者清楚領略楊牧所企慕與建構的文學風景。或許可以說,本文相信這條研究進路,不僅是貼近楊牧文學生命的一個重要補充,也為闡釋楊牧在臺灣文學的典範意義,提供一相應且相當的想像。因此,本文擬題「楊牧的涉事,疑神及其他」,從精讀《疑神》出發,嘗試勾勒楊牧在觀照「現實」與回應「超越」,一貫若即若離,將信將疑的美學姿態,及其後可能開展的學術視域。

 

 

"Sceptic, Venture and Others: a Spiritual Approach to Yang Mu’s Poetry"

 

One year after the lifting of martial law in 1987, Yang Mu started writing The  Sceptic: Notes on Poetical Discrepancies and published it in 1993. By reading these intellectual and poetic essays, we will have some clear thoughts about his concerns.  The unique religious, political and cultural views were all involved in his works. He was a poet who didn’t satisfy only with romanticism, but was also a bellwether beyond this. In my paper, it will discuss why Faustian spirit was important in the study of Yang Mu’s venture, and how a person believing the intellectual autonomy was sketched as a Sceptic.

 

 

王淑華 Shuhua Wang

 

〈楊牧與文化流動 :《暴風雨》的再生〉

 

本文將從葛林柏雷特 (Stephen J . Greenblatt) 的「文化移動」(Cultural Mobility)理念出發,探討詩人楊牧 (王靖獻) 與其編譯的莎劇《暴風雨》的社會文化意涵。 自古以來,人類的移動、互動、交換、混雜、重整與再生一直是文化形成的動力。就文學而論,翻譯一向是人類思想的傳遞與美學再現的推手;而詩人投身異文化的經典譯著,更是文化融合、文本再造的功臣。楊牧本人就是現代文化移動的象徵,而他所翻譯的莎劇《暴風雨》,經由台灣「當代傳奇劇場」改編展演,則為當代文化跨界和文本再造的典型。

 

 

"Cultural Mobility and Yang Mu’s Translation of The Tempest"

 

Informed and inspired by Stephen J . Greenblatt’s theory/idea of Cultural Mobility, this paper investigates the aesthetic, literary and cultural implications of Yang Mu’s translation of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest and its subsequent adaptation by the Contemporary Legend Theatre.

 

 

翟月琴 Yueqin Zhai

 

〈靜佇、永在與浮升──楊牧詩歌中聲音與意象的三種關係〉

 

臺灣詩人楊牧自1956年創作伊始,就一直堅持對於聲音(語音、語調、辭章結構和語法變化產生的音樂性)的追求,這也使他的詩歌独树一帜,影响深远。研究其聲音特質,不僅需要借助於語言技巧,更在於探究聲音與語義之間的互動關係。而意象所蘊含的語義功能,正提供了一條可借鑒的考察路徑。從楊牧長達半個多世紀的創作中,能夠提煉出聲音與意象之間存在的三種美學關係,即(一)靜佇:沉默的時間、(二)永在:歸去的回環和(三)浮升:抽象的螺旋。通過研究楊牧的詩歌,也為分析聲音與意象理論關係提供了重要的個案典範。

 

 

           "Standing Still, Eternal Being, and Ascendance: Three Relationships

Between Sound and Imagery in Yang Mu’s Poetry"

 

Taiwan poet Yang Mu has been perseverant in his pursuit of the beauty of sound in his poetry, including the musicality of pronunciation, tones, textual structure and grammatical innovation, ever since the very beginning of his poetry writing in 1956, which renders rich meanings and limitless interpretations to his poems. To study the functions of sound in a poem, only linguistic features are not enough. What is more important is to study the interaction between sound and meanings, for which analyses of imagery proves to be helpful for sound and images. From Yang's poetry spanning half a century, three aesthetic relations between sounds and meanings can be extracted: standing still and silent time, eternal being and circularity, ascendance and abstract spiral. Therefore, Yang's poems can be used as typical examples for analyzing the theoretical relations between sound and imagery.

 

 

 

劉益州  Yi-jhou Liu

 

〈​生死文字間:楊牧《介殼蟲》中的時間表述〉

 

楊牧藉由詩作探索自我在時空中的位置及生命根源的企圖相當明晰,他的詩作經常以自我生命追尋為原點,進一步對「他者/他物」參照,發現抽象與拔高的生命價值。本文就楊牧收錄於《介殼蟲》詩集中進行觀察,從「時序及天體運行的時間觀察」、「他者及他物的生命觀察」幾個部分進行討論。可看見楊牧如何對時間及生命世界產生各種「好奇」及想像,並用精確而深邃的比喻呈現出來,可從《介殼蟲》中看見其對生命的想像及探索,對時間的觀察與自我表述,同時也能更察覺到楊牧詩作的藝術及思想價值。

 

 

“Life and Death in between Words:

Expression of Time in Yang Mu’s The Scale Insect"

 

Yang Mu has a distinct intension to explore the positon of self in time and space as well as revision the origin of life. His poems usually start with self’s inner-quest, which further illuminated by “the Other/Other objects,” finally attain the abstract and comprehend the value of exalted life. This paper attempts to analyze the poems collected in The Scale Insect by looking into how they recapture “seasonal order and the rotation of celestial bodies” and how they observe “the life of the other and the other objects.” It unravels how Yang Mu raises “curiosity” and imagination in a great variety of ways to fathom time and the living world, and finds expression of them in precise and arcane metaphors. From The Scale Insect one witnesses Yang Mu’s imagination and exploration towards life, his observation of time, and  self-figuration, and at the same time perceives the aesthetic and cognitive value of his poetry.

 

 

 

須文蔚 Wen-wei Shiu

 

 

〈楊牧學體系的建構與開展研究:

 一個後設與文學評論史的視角〉

 

楊牧是當代華文文學世界中經典詩人、散文家、翻譯家與評論家,又兼擅編輯與出版,他自詡為中國健全的知識分子,和歐洲文藝復興人(Renaissance Man)傳下的典型,當代華文文學評論與研究眾多,「楊牧學」隱然成形。本文以後設研究的方法論,考察與梳理當代文學評論界與研究者的評論,從文學評論史的角度,分為四個部分論述:楊牧的生平研究、楊牧詩中浪漫主義精神研究、楊牧詩中抒情傳統展現與變革研究以及楊牧散文研究等議題,為「楊牧學」之建構與開展提出藍圖。藉由本研究分析,展現楊牧如何以極致美的追求,繼受詩言志傳統,平衡抒情與敘事,開創現代詩的典範,並討論楊牧如何以詩的美學融入散文中,使得他的散文富有詩的韻味、入世的批判以及哲理的思辯。

 

 

 

"On The Construction and Development of Yang Mu Studies:

A Meta-critical Perspective"

 

In the world of contemporary Chinese Literature, Yang Mu is a canonical poet, a prose writer, a translator, a critic, as well as an editor and publisher; he calls himself a wholesome Chinese intellectual, comparable to the “Renaissance Man” in the European tradition.  Critical works on Yang Mu written in Chinese are legion and vigorously burgeoning is a phenomenon called “Yang Mu Studies.”  With a meta-critical approach, this essay attempts to look into various critical responses to Yang Mu’s oeuvre among literary circle and academia from the angle of a historical  review.  The essay proposes to sort critical works on Yang Mu into four groups —Yang Mu’s life study, the spirit of Romanticism in Yang Mu’s poetry, the tradition of lyricism and its revision in Yang Mu’s poetry, and the study of Yang Mu’s prose—thereby to map out a blueprint for “Yang Mu Studies.”  Further analysis will illustrate how Yang Mu in his relentless search for ultimate beauty, inherits the core idea of traditional Chinese poetics, i.e., “Poetry speaks the heart’s intent,” and keeps lyricism and narration in good balance, to create a model for modern poetry. Besides, this essay also discusses how Yang Mu merges poetry into prose to make his essays exude lyrical aura, teeming with social critique and philosophical thinking.

 

 

 

張松建  Songjian Zhang

     

 

〈​詩史之際:楊牧的歷史詩學(1968-2011)〉

 

本文考察楊牧如何採納一套歷史闡釋的策略和模式以表達一己之「歷史意識」與「國族認同」。從1968年到2011年,楊牧先後寫下了十幾首具有「歷史題材」的現代詩,其中包括:〈續韓愈七言古詩山石〉、〈武宿夜組曲〉、〈延陵季子掛劍〉、〈秋祭杜甫〉、〈鄭玄寤夢〉、〈吳鳳成仁〉、〈熱蘭遮城〉、〈她預知大難〉、〈施琅發銅山〉、〈甯靖王歎息羈樓〉、〈歲末觀但丁〉等等。透過文本細讀、脈絡化和理論介入,本文認為,楊牧的這種「歷史意識」起源於他的跨國離散和知識冒險所導致的個人觀念的再解放;他在詩中展開的對於歷史的理解、詮釋和想像,重點不在於就事論事、發思古之幽情,而在於投射抒情自我在當下處境中的戲劇性體驗。這種歷史知識的性質屬於美國文學批評家詹明信所謂的「存在歷史主義」,它不但與現代西方歷史哲學家的論述——例如德國的狄爾泰和伽達默爾、法國的柏格森、義大利的克羅齊、英國的科林伍德——有所呼應和共鳴,而且深刻見證了後殖民全球化背景下臺灣本土意識的歷史性變遷。

 

 

 "Between Poetry and History: On Yang Mu’s Poetics of History"

 

It is well-known that Yang Mu has composed a series of poems including history since 1968. This paper argues that history as “dramatic experience” rather than as “vision” is projected in Yang Mu’s poems, and that his historical understanding, as the product of his transnational experience and intellectual adventure in the past decades, echoes in the discourse of “existential historicism” articulated by Frederic Jameson. Through textual analysis, contextualization and theoretical intervention, this paper is a critical attempt to examine the interpretative strategies that Yang Mu employs to inscribe his historical sense and national identity.

 

 

 

 

李建興  Chien-hsing Li

     

 

〈論楊牧詩的憂憫與抵抗〉

 

參與社會,介入現實,無非來自知識良心的感發;憂憫苦難,抵抗橫逆,無非源於詩人滿腔熱切的愛念。本文擬闡釋楊牧有關詩的現實功能與永恆價值之論述旨意,考察他在關切現實與藝術追求之間,如何衡量抉擇。文中將借鑑他所標舉的「詩關涉」,對於詩的美學層次與道德旨歸的界定,間或及於如何釐清、統攝詩的形式與內容、文體與主題的關係。進而析論楊牧三首關注現實世界的詩作:〈悲歌為林義雄作〉(1980)、〈悼某人〉(1987)、〈地震後八十一日在東勢〉(1999),其中或涉及人間不義之事件,或涉及天地不仁之災變,藉以印證他在悲憫介入與藝術美感之間,如何經過探索錘鍊而取得謹嚴縝密的平衡。從而指出,楊牧綰合詩的技術關涉與文化關涉,踐履他對人間社會的抵抗與愛憫,並具體實現、維持了他終極嚮往追求的「詩的真實」。

 

 

“On Compassion and Resistance in Yang Mu’s Poetry”

 

Only by the inspiration of intellectual conscience can one participate in social affairs and get involved in the reality; only by his passionate love can the poet have great empathy with the people in hardships and struggle against adversity. This paper aims to elucidate Yang Mu’s idea and discourse on the practical function and the eternal value of poetry and to study how the poet evaluates and makes his choices when he both cares for reality and seeks for artistry. I will give examples to explain “The Poetic Concerns” that the poet advocates to define the aesthetics and morality of poetry, to distinguish and delineate the relationships between form and topic and between style and subject. Furthermore, I will analyze Yang Mu’s “An Elegy Composed for Yi-hsiung Lin” (〈悲歌為林義雄作〉, 1980), “Mourning for Someone” (〈悼某人〉, 1987), and “At Tungshi Eighty-one Days after the 921 Earthquake” (〈地震後八十一日在東勢〉, 1999), three poems that attend to the reality of the world, to demonstrate how he manages to integrate his sympathy into aesthetics and how he achieves perfect harmony through exploration and improvement. The three poems also express his responses to unjust events and natural disasters in the real world with his art. Thus, I will point out that Yang Mu has synthesized his poetic skills and his cultural observations, has carried out his resistance to and compassion for human society, and has realized and maintained his ultimate pursuit of “the authenticity of poetry.”

 

 

 

張依蘋 Ee-ping Tiong

     

 

〈​Weltinnenraum:在台灣的美麗新世界與楊牧〉

 

 

O wonder!

How many godly creatures are there here!

How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world,

That has such people in't.

—William Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act V  

 

從二十一世紀初,屬於後見之明的視野來回望,想像二十世紀,並且,嘗試用詩意的,透視的眼光來察看;把楊牧的詩置放其中,讓它釋放,舞蹈,自由徜徉其中,然後我們觀望,這些詩,意味甚麼,產生了甚麼。

 

似乎甚麼都沒有。似乎甚麼都有!

 

是不能以現有的價值體系去計量的一個世界,看不見的一個世界。是楊牧透過他的生命,去感知,去挖掘,去表達和運轉的一個無限世界。在這個無限的世界裡,有了內面的世界空間,以神經為線索,以人的情感為空氣,水與其中充滿的一切物質;以人的知覺結構為建築。

 

是一個精神物質的文明進行命名的過程。似乎是楊牧,卻也是面對楊牧的我們自身,寫與讀,觀看與被觀看,乃至感知的共生關係。

 

於是有了世界的內面空間,一種翻轉,某種轉折,歷史的,也是個人的。於是有了憂傷,有了非凡的喜悅;有了孤獨。於是島出現了,生命出現了!       

 

於是有了美,有了再造,有了希望。 

 

有了新世界。

 

 

          "Weltinnenraum:Brave New World in Taiwan and Yang Mu"  

 

         From early 21st century, with a conclusive perspective taking a glance back to the 2oth century, we verify through a poetic and transparent view, what it means, what is the happenings? -of the freely dancing, flowing poetry composed by Yang Mu.

 

         It’s quiet, as if nothing has happened. It’s full, as if everything else is within!

 

        It is a world invisible, immeasurable by the existing value system. It is Yang Mu over his life cultivating, culturing, and to express, to exercise a endless world. In such boundless world, it happened of and with its inner space through our nerves and feelings, formed the materials of its universe, architecture of human’s senses; In poetry, the refine version.

 

        This is a journey of civilization for mental materialization. It is Yang Mu and us as his reader/s, travelling together  in such world inner space.

 

        And the world has been turned the other way round possibly, appeared with a leap in historical as well as individual civilization. So born the melancholic things, ecstasy, solitude…… so born the island- real life awakening!

 

        So born the beauty, the recreation, the hope.

 

        So born the new world, bravely.

 

 

 

Charles Terseer Akwen 

 

“Poetics of Identity and Literary Creativity in the Poetry of Yang Mu and Odia Ofeimun”

 

Questions on the identity of the poet within the framework of literary creativity raise its own specific problems. Central to this problematic is the very important need to describe how the poet is represented within the context of poetic utterances and literary consciousness. Consequently, the identity(ies) of the poet, in relation to his poetry, has turned on the argument of impersonality among literary scholars from the earliest study of poetry down to this present age.  This paper focuses principally on the poetry of Yang Mu and Odia Ofeimun where the voice, serving as nominal references, is used to capture or recapture in their poetry, a sense of identity. My interest in this study is to evaluate how both poets capture or reinvent a sense of identity in his collections No Trace of the Gardener (1998) and The Poet Lied: And Other Poems (1980). This paper applies Mario Petrucci’s interpretative strategies as an attempt to investigate the poet’s involvement in his poetry by using approaches which concretize his poetic experiences from both the subjective and objective point of view.  This study is therefore interested in how each poet has been able to define or reinvent the notion of identity in his poetry by using (literary) strategies with the intention of transforming this identity into literary creativity.

 

 

〈楊牧與Ofeimun詩作中的認同詩學與文學創作〉

 

在文學創作的框架內,詩人的身份認同成為特定的問題。這個問題的重點在於如何於詩的表達與文學意識的脈絡間再現詩人。然而,文學研究學者針對詩人的身份認同與其詩作的關係,從早期詩學研究到現當代,已轉向無我之境的論點。本文主要聚焦於楊牧及Ofeimun的詩作,兩人作品中作為名義指涉的敘述聲調,被用來捕捉一種認同感。這個研究旨在評斷兩位詩人在作品集 No Trace of the Gardener (1998) and The Poet Lied: And Other Poems (1980)當中捕捉或重新創造一種身份認同感。論文援用 Mario Petrucci的詮釋策略,企圖探究詩人於其詩中的涉入性,如何從主觀及客觀的視角具體化其詩歌經驗。作家如何運用文學技巧,將身份認同轉化成文學創作,將是這篇論文的重點。

 

 

 

 

利文祺  Wen-chi Li

      

〈山勢氣象:論楊牧的詩歌與自傳散文《奇萊前書》〉

 

楊牧的「氣象」一詞,發軔於在詩歌〈仰望——木瓜山一九九五〉,提示山脈雄雄偉、永恆之勢。在若干詩歌與散文《奇萊前書》之中,台灣山勢的「氣象」彷彿具有更多重的樣貌,不斷彰顯了楊牧自身的生命經驗。台灣山川的意象,根植於楊牧的幼時記憶,並在他出國時成為他創作靈感的泉源。正如陳芳明所言,楊牧兒時印象的「花蓮」,不只是靈感的體現,更如奧德修斯一般,在羈旅在外的過程中,一種回顧,以及提示「花蓮」為終點之必然性。在詩歌中,詩人將山與海比擬為人,彷彿為其知己,抑或理想之化身,並與其展開親密的對話。這樣的對話反映了詩人的內在世界,如在〈仰望〉一詩,敘述者將木瓜山描述為永恆的「少年氣象」,並透過對山脈充沛氣象之認同,進而暗示了自我對詩的定義、追尋、探索、以及想望,成為永恆之可能。另外,詩人在諸多作品中亦提到試圖重現自然之美、神話與傳奇之嘗試。因此,我將討論詩歌中的山脈氣象,對應楊牧的少年氣象,並解說詩人如何透過對山脈的認同,達到永恆的高度。

 

 

 

“The Spirit of Mountains:On Yang Mu’s ‘Looking up— Mount Papaya’”

 

My research intends to explore the idea of “spirit”(氣象) in Yang Mu’s work entitled “Looking up— Mount Papaya”. The poet has very strong affection toward his hometown Hualien, a place with magnificent maintains and sea. Although he sojourned abroad in most of his lifetime, the childhood experience of the landscape has been inspiring him to develop a serial of works focused on a sense of nostalgia. Indeed, as Chen Fang-ming has underlined, the experience of Yang Mu’s childhood becomes not only his poetic motivation, but also make Hualien into an Odysseus place where he returns after travelling. In his works, he personifies the mountains and sea as either his confidant or the ideal, shaping an intimate communication between him and the landscape. Such a communication reflects his inner world’s dynamism. For example, the narrator, when looking up at Mount Papaya again, has discovered the eternal “spirit of youth” exuding from the mountain. This “spirit” has never changed since childhood. Revering the vitality of the mountain, the poet seems to identify with such a magnificent image, so that the “spirit” can both refer to the mountain and the poet himself. More than this, the poet confesses his constant attempt to imitate and represent the beauty of nature, and also shapes a symbolic totality of myth and legend within his woks. He claims, “I intend to pursue the eternity of love and beauty in a resounding storm, and immerse myself in academics, ethics, religion, my belief and disbelief, …, in order to find out the ‘truth’ in the symbolic system, either implicit or explicit ”. Therefore, in the first part, I would like to point out the influence of the “spirit” of the mountain on his work, and his contemplation and representation of the mountain in this poem. In the second part, I would connect the idea of “spirit” to the eternity and the truth, and then discuss about the possibility of the transcendental “truth” that can be found out in his work.

 

 

 

曾珍珍 Chen-chen Tseng

 

〈生態象徵在輓歌詩體中的運用:楊牧的創見〉

 

自古以來,在中西抒情詩傳統中,輓歌乃一重要文類。與葉慈分庭抗禮,楊牧為漢語現代詩寫出了多首輓歌經典。本文試圖聚焦生態意象在楊牧不同時期輓歌佳作中的修辭特色,如〈輓歌一百二十行〉(1977)、〈悲歌為林義雄作〉(1980)、〈宗將軍挽詩并誄〉(1992)、〈地震後八十一日在東勢〉(1999)、〈遂渡河—Trochaic拗體輓潛誠〉(1999)、〈懷古─for Anthony〉(2015)等,兼及晚近的生態輓歌,如〈介殼蟲〉(2003)、〈台灣欒樹〉(2009)、〈蕨歌〉(2011),藉以觀察詩人如何縱放人文關懷與後人類思維交互辯詰丶激盪,搜尋、建構得之於心的生態象徵系統,抒發個己獨特的生死感悟,省思文字運轉在組構與解構間的表達潛能,從而展現了跨界、跨領域、跨文化書寫格局。

 

 

"Ecological Symbols and the Art of Elegy: Yang Mu’s Vision"

 

Elegy is a major kind of Lyrical poetry, East and West. Rivaling W. B. Yeats, Yang Mu has contributed a series of canonical elegies to the Chinese contemporary poetry. This essay attempts to look into how imagery of fauna and flora, and the poet’s well-versed reference to astronomy, geology, and meteorology, operate as rhetorical tropes and symbols in selected elegies composed by Yang Mu at different stages of his poetry writing. It proposes to observe how humanistic concerns and post-humanist speculations contest with and mutually illuminate each other to shape Yang Mu’s symbolic world and sublime style, equip him with language to articulate his uncanny imagination of life after death, and help him attain a vision of boundary-crossing, interdisciplinary, and transcultural writing.

 

 

 

詹閔旭 Min-xu Zhan

 

 

〈台灣文學的擬造世界之力:談楊牧《奇萊前書》〉

 

這這篇論文將透過楊牧《奇萊前書》回應目前學界有關世界文學的討論,思考弱勢地區的文學生產如何介入世界文學。《奇萊前書》集結楊牧《山風海雨》、《方向歸零》、《昔我往矣》三本充滿自傳色彩的散文集而成,深刻記錄一位作家如何透過書寫重構兒時所接觸的各種新知識、異文化初體驗,以及成年作家字裡行間隱含的敘事觀點與批評。從敘事觀點來看,這一本書絕非向過去時光回顧的回憶錄,而是面向未來,面向新世界的擬造與期許,呼應謝永平(Pheng Cheah)所謂世界文學所蘊含的擬造世界之力(world-making forces)。本文主張楊牧文學創作所展現出來的以台灣為觀點的擬造世界實踐,或許有助於在世界文學殿堂裡尋覓到台灣文學的獨特發聲位置。

 

 

 

“World-making Forces in Taiwan Literature:

On Yang Mu’s Memories of Mount Qilai: The Education of a Young Poet

 

This paper, through Yang Mu’s Memories of Mount Qilai, intends to examine how literary productions of the so-called peripheries engage in the discussions of world literature. Memories of Mount Qilai combines Yang Mu’s Moutain Wind and Ocean Rain, Return to Degree Zero, Long Ago, When We Started, three autobiographically-tinged collections of prose, and records in detail how the writer, through writing, reconstructs an amorphous medley of new knowledges and new experiences of exotic cultures he encountered as a child. The book also records how the writer, in his grown-up mature voice, makes his critical observations. From a narrative point of view, this book is by no means a retrospect that contemplates of things in the past; rather, it is a book that faces a future, a re-imagining and an expectation of a new horizon. Thus, it demonstrates an alternative notion of world literature as world-making forces, as defined by Pheng Cheah. This paper highlights the importance of the world-making practices in Yang Mu’s cosmopolitan writings, for it may help find a place for Taiwan in a map of the world literature.

 

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