2015 Yang Mu Studies
論文發表 Paper Presentation
鄭毓瑜 Yu-yu Chen
“Looking Up and Down: Tracing the Development of a Metaphor”
Yang Mu’s scholarship encompasses Chinese and Western literature. His poetry, rich in intricate allusions, demonstrates his unfathomable learnedness. It has attracted numerous critical attentions aiming at unraveling Yang Mu’s verbal art and unique ways of expression from various theoretical approaches. This essay attempts to trace and retrieve the development of a metaphor in his poems which “figures time as a running stream.” From the following three aspects: “Man and the Elusive River,’ “Necessity and Chance,” and “Time and Truth,” the essay proposes to lay bare step by step how the poet moves and negotiates between poetry and ideas, and eventually envisions “the poetic truth” that “helps define and refine time.”
王家新 Jiaxin Wang
“How can we know the dancer from the dance?”—Yang Mu and W. B. Yeats
In the history of Chinese modern poetry, Fengzhi is often associated with Rilke and so is Mudan with W. H. Auden to form a kind of “glorious symmetry.” They achieved such an interdependent, dialogic, and mutually illuminating relation with the great poets of the West not merely through their outstanding translation but also by their own lifelong creative endeavors. Now, as I perceive it, Yang Mu has also attained such a “symmetrical” kinship with W. B. Yeats. As early as when he went abroad to study and then teach in college, Yang Mu has started to translate Yeats’s poems. Yeats’s aristocratic demeanor, elitism, his aspiration to fashion an eternal realm through language, and his persistent quest for bringing “a well-wrought unity” into being – all of these have exerted a deep influence on Yang Mu, who in turn dedicated himself to translating Yeats. Uniquely enriched with his own erudition and elegant style, Yang Mu’s translation not only imparts a Chinese countenance to Yeats but has acquired estimably its own poetic value. This essay attempts to look into Yeats’s influence on Yang Mu and Yang Mu’s translation of Yeats.
王明端 Mingduan Wang/王國璽 Guoxi Wang
作品介绍：1979 年七月至十月間，臺灣文學家楊牧先生撰寫了三篇散文：《普林士頓的秋天》《普林士頓的冬天》《普林士頓的春天》，收錄於《搜索者》一書。（《搜索者》1999 年入選臺灣文學經典三十部）楊牧先生以飽滿豐厚的學識、從容自在的情調，記錄下生命中最寧靜最充滿自信的回憶。幾近四十年後，我們不揣冒昧，以戲劇之形態來重演文學之情態。置身數位化社會紛繁亂象，拾取文心寸縷，妄圖以當下人事叩擊歷史古意。借助聲音、文本、空間三者的撞擊，啟動遠遁的經年舊事，接續塵去的氣度見識，由是乃有《普林士頓的夏天》產生。
“Introducing Summer of Princeton, a Play Inspired by Yang Mu’s Prose”
The Searching One (《搜索者》), selected as one of the classic Taiwan Literary Works in 1999, includes three pieces of prose written by Yang Mu from July to October in 1979. They are “Autumn of Princeton ,” “Winter of Princeton,” and “Spring of Princeton.” These pieces, written in a calm tone and reflecting Yang Mu’s eruditeness, are his recollections in quiet confidence of his sojourn at Princeton as visiting professor. Almost forty years later, in a spirit of reverent emulation, we tried to transform his literary sensibility into theater. We attempted to create a dialogue between the present digital world we live in and the past Yang wrote about. Summer of Princeton creates the clash between sound, text, and space so that the old memories are evoked and the extraordinary open-mindedness and knowledge of Yang Mu is inherited and passed on.
張期達 Chi-ta Chang
"Sceptic, Venture and Others: a Spiritual Approach to Yang Mu’s Poetry"
One year after the lifting of martial law in 1987, Yang Mu started writing The Sceptic: Notes on Poetical Discrepancies and published it in 1993. By reading these intellectual and poetic essays, we will have some clear thoughts about his concerns. The unique religious, political and cultural views were all involved in his works. He was a poet who didn’t satisfy only with romanticism, but was also a bellwether beyond this. In my paper, it will discuss why Faustian spirit was important in the study of Yang Mu’s venture, and how a person believing the intellectual autonomy was sketched as a Sceptic.
王淑華 Shuhua Wang
本文將從葛林柏雷特 (Stephen J . Greenblatt) 的「文化移動」(Cultural Mobility)理念出發，探討詩人楊牧 (王靖獻) 與其編譯的莎劇《暴風雨》的社會文化意涵。 自古以來，人類的移動、互動、交換、混雜、重整與再生一直是文化形成的動力。就文學而論，翻譯一向是人類思想的傳遞與美學再現的推手；而詩人投身異文化的經典譯著，更是文化融合、文本再造的功臣。楊牧本人就是現代文化移動的象徵，而他所翻譯的莎劇《暴風雨》，經由台灣「當代傳奇劇場」改編展演，則為當代文化跨界和文本再造的典型。
"Cultural Mobility and Yang Mu’s Translation of The Tempest"
Informed and inspired by Stephen J . Greenblatt’s theory/idea of Cultural Mobility, this paper investigates the aesthetic, literary and cultural implications of Yang Mu’s translation of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest and its subsequent adaptation by the Contemporary Legend Theatre.
翟月琴 Yueqin Zhai
"Standing Still, Eternal Being, and Ascendance: Three Relationships
Between Sound and Imagery in Yang Mu’s Poetry"
Taiwan poet Yang Mu has been perseverant in his pursuit of the beauty of sound in his poetry, including the musicality of pronunciation, tones, textual structure and grammatical innovation, ever since the very beginning of his poetry writing in 1956, which renders rich meanings and limitless interpretations to his poems. To study the functions of sound in a poem, only linguistic features are not enough. What is more important is to study the interaction between sound and meanings, for which analyses of imagery proves to be helpful for sound and images. From Yang's poetry spanning half a century, three aesthetic relations between sounds and meanings can be extracted: standing still and silent time, eternal being and circularity, ascendance and abstract spiral. Therefore, Yang's poems can be used as typical examples for analyzing the theoretical relations between sound and imagery.
劉益州 Yi-jhou Liu
“Life and Death in between Words:
Expression of Time in Yang Mu’s The Scale Insect"
Yang Mu has a distinct intension to explore the positon of self in time and space as well as revision the origin of life. His poems usually start with self’s inner-quest, which further illuminated by “the Other/Other objects,” finally attain the abstract and comprehend the value of exalted life. This paper attempts to analyze the poems collected in The Scale Insect by looking into how they recapture “seasonal order and the rotation of celestial bodies” and how they observe “the life of the other and the other objects.” It unravels how Yang Mu raises “curiosity” and imagination in a great variety of ways to fathom time and the living world, and finds expression of them in precise and arcane metaphors. From The Scale Insect one witnesses Yang Mu’s imagination and exploration towards life, his observation of time, and self-figuration, and at the same time perceives the aesthetic and cognitive value of his poetry.
須文蔚 Wen-wei Shiu
"On The Construction and Development of Yang Mu Studies:
A Meta-critical Perspective"
In the world of contemporary Chinese Literature, Yang Mu is a canonical poet, a prose writer, a translator, a critic, as well as an editor and publisher; he calls himself a wholesome Chinese intellectual, comparable to the “Renaissance Man” in the European tradition. Critical works on Yang Mu written in Chinese are legion and vigorously burgeoning is a phenomenon called “Yang Mu Studies.” With a meta-critical approach, this essay attempts to look into various critical responses to Yang Mu’s oeuvre among literary circle and academia from the angle of a historical review. The essay proposes to sort critical works on Yang Mu into four groups —Yang Mu’s life study, the spirit of Romanticism in Yang Mu’s poetry, the tradition of lyricism and its revision in Yang Mu’s poetry, and the study of Yang Mu’s prose—thereby to map out a blueprint for “Yang Mu Studies.” Further analysis will illustrate how Yang Mu in his relentless search for ultimate beauty, inherits the core idea of traditional Chinese poetics, i.e., “Poetry speaks the heart’s intent,” and keeps lyricism and narration in good balance, to create a model for modern poetry. Besides, this essay also discusses how Yang Mu merges poetry into prose to make his essays exude lyrical aura, teeming with social critique and philosophical thinking.
張松建 Songjian Zhang
"Between Poetry and History: On Yang Mu’s Poetics of History"
It is well-known that Yang Mu has composed a series of poems including history since 1968. This paper argues that history as “dramatic experience” rather than as “vision” is projected in Yang Mu’s poems, and that his historical understanding, as the product of his transnational experience and intellectual adventure in the past decades, echoes in the discourse of “existential historicism” articulated by Frederic Jameson. Through textual analysis, contextualization and theoretical intervention, this paper is a critical attempt to examine the interpretative strategies that Yang Mu employs to inscribe his historical sense and national identity.
李建興 Chien-hsing Li
“On Compassion and Resistance in Yang Mu’s Poetry”
Only by the inspiration of intellectual conscience can one participate in social affairs and get involved in the reality; only by his passionate love can the poet have great empathy with the people in hardships and struggle against adversity. This paper aims to elucidate Yang Mu’s idea and discourse on the practical function and the eternal value of poetry and to study how the poet evaluates and makes his choices when he both cares for reality and seeks for artistry. I will give examples to explain “The Poetic Concerns” that the poet advocates to define the aesthetics and morality of poetry, to distinguish and delineate the relationships between form and topic and between style and subject. Furthermore, I will analyze Yang Mu’s “An Elegy Composed for Yi-hsiung Lin” (〈悲歌為林義雄作〉, 1980), “Mourning for Someone” (〈悼某人〉, 1987), and “At Tungshi Eighty-one Days after the 921 Earthquake” (〈地震後八十一日在東勢〉, 1999), three poems that attend to the reality of the world, to demonstrate how he manages to integrate his sympathy into aesthetics and how he achieves perfect harmony through exploration and improvement. The three poems also express his responses to unjust events and natural disasters in the real world with his art. Thus, I will point out that Yang Mu has synthesized his poetic skills and his cultural observations, has carried out his resistance to and compassion for human society, and has realized and maintained his ultimate pursuit of “the authenticity of poetry.”
張依蘋 Ee-ping Tiong
How many godly creatures are there here!
How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world,
That has such people in't.
—William Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act V
"Weltinnenraum:Brave New World in Taiwan and Yang Mu"
From early 21st century, with a conclusive perspective taking a glance back to the 2oth century, we verify through a poetic and transparent view, what it means, what is the happenings? -of the freely dancing, flowing poetry composed by Yang Mu.
It’s quiet, as if nothing has happened. It’s full, as if everything else is within!
It is a world invisible, immeasurable by the existing value system. It is Yang Mu over his life cultivating, culturing, and to express, to exercise a endless world. In such boundless world, it happened of and with its inner space through our nerves and feelings, formed the materials of its universe, architecture of human’s senses; In poetry, the refine version.
This is a journey of civilization for mental materialization. It is Yang Mu and us as his reader/s, travelling together in such world inner space.
And the world has been turned the other way round possibly, appeared with a leap in historical as well as individual civilization. So born the melancholic things, ecstasy, solitude…… so born the island- real life awakening!
So born the beauty, the recreation, the hope.
So born the new world, bravely.
Charles Terseer Akwen
“Poetics of Identity and Literary Creativity in the Poetry of Yang Mu and Odia Ofeimun”
Questions on the identity of the poet within the framework of literary creativity raise its own specific problems. Central to this problematic is the very important need to describe how the poet is represented within the context of poetic utterances and literary consciousness. Consequently, the identity(ies) of the poet, in relation to his poetry, has turned on the argument of impersonality among literary scholars from the earliest study of poetry down to this present age. This paper focuses principally on the poetry of Yang Mu and Odia Ofeimun where the voice, serving as nominal references, is used to capture or recapture in their poetry, a sense of identity. My interest in this study is to evaluate how both poets capture or reinvent a sense of identity in his collections No Trace of the Gardener (1998) and The Poet Lied: And Other Poems (1980). This paper applies Mario Petrucci’s interpretative strategies as an attempt to investigate the poet’s involvement in his poetry by using approaches which concretize his poetic experiences from both the subjective and objective point of view. This study is therefore interested in how each poet has been able to define or reinvent the notion of identity in his poetry by using (literary) strategies with the intention of transforming this identity into literary creativity.
在文學創作的框架內，詩人的身份認同成為特定的問題。這個問題的重點在於如何於詩的表達與文學意識的脈絡間再現詩人。然而，文學研究學者針對詩人的身份認同與其詩作的關係，從早期詩學研究到現當代，已轉向無我之境的論點。本文主要聚焦於楊牧及Ofeimun的詩作，兩人作品中作為名義指涉的敘述聲調，被用來捕捉一種認同感。這個研究旨在評斷兩位詩人在作品集 No Trace of the Gardener (1998) and The Poet Lied: And Other Poems (1980)當中捕捉或重新創造一種身份認同感。論文援用 Mario Petrucci的詮釋策略，企圖探究詩人於其詩中的涉入性，如何從主觀及客觀的視角具體化其詩歌經驗。作家如何運用文學技巧，將身份認同轉化成文學創作，將是這篇論文的重點。
利文祺 Wen-chi Li
“The Spirit of Mountains：On Yang Mu’s ‘Looking up— Mount Papaya’”
My research intends to explore the idea of “spirit”(氣象) in Yang Mu’s work entitled “Looking up— Mount Papaya”. The poet has very strong affection toward his hometown Hualien, a place with magnificent maintains and sea. Although he sojourned abroad in most of his lifetime, the childhood experience of the landscape has been inspiring him to develop a serial of works focused on a sense of nostalgia. Indeed, as Chen Fang-ming has underlined, the experience of Yang Mu’s childhood becomes not only his poetic motivation, but also make Hualien into an Odysseus place where he returns after travelling. In his works, he personifies the mountains and sea as either his confidant or the ideal, shaping an intimate communication between him and the landscape. Such a communication reflects his inner world’s dynamism. For example, the narrator, when looking up at Mount Papaya again, has discovered the eternal “spirit of youth” exuding from the mountain. This “spirit” has never changed since childhood. Revering the vitality of the mountain, the poet seems to identify with such a magnificent image, so that the “spirit” can both refer to the mountain and the poet himself. More than this, the poet confesses his constant attempt to imitate and represent the beauty of nature, and also shapes a symbolic totality of myth and legend within his woks. He claims, “I intend to pursue the eternity of love and beauty in a resounding storm, and immerse myself in academics, ethics, religion, my belief and disbelief, …, in order to find out the ‘truth’ in the symbolic system, either implicit or explicit ”. Therefore, in the first part, I would like to point out the influence of the “spirit” of the mountain on his work, and his contemplation and representation of the mountain in this poem. In the second part, I would connect the idea of “spirit” to the eternity and the truth, and then discuss about the possibility of the transcendental “truth” that can be found out in his work.
曾珍珍 Chen-chen Tseng
"Ecological Symbols and the Art of Elegy: Yang Mu’s Vision"
Elegy is a major kind of Lyrical poetry, East and West. Rivaling W. B. Yeats, Yang Mu has contributed a series of canonical elegies to the Chinese contemporary poetry. This essay attempts to look into how imagery of fauna and flora, and the poet’s well-versed reference to astronomy, geology, and meteorology, operate as rhetorical tropes and symbols in selected elegies composed by Yang Mu at different stages of his poetry writing. It proposes to observe how humanistic concerns and post-humanist speculations contest with and mutually illuminate each other to shape Yang Mu’s symbolic world and sublime style, equip him with language to articulate his uncanny imagination of life after death, and help him attain a vision of boundary-crossing, interdisciplinary, and transcultural writing.
詹閔旭 Min-xu Zhan
這這篇論文將透過楊牧《奇萊前書》回應目前學界有關世界文學的討論，思考弱勢地區的文學生產如何介入世界文學。《奇萊前書》集結楊牧《山風海雨》、《方向歸零》、《昔我往矣》三本充滿自傳色彩的散文集而成，深刻記錄一位作家如何透過書寫重構兒時所接觸的各種新知識、異文化初體驗，以及成年作家字裡行間隱含的敘事觀點與批評。從敘事觀點來看，這一本書絕非向過去時光回顧的回憶錄，而是面向未來，面向新世界的擬造與期許，呼應謝永平（Pheng Cheah）所謂世界文學所蘊含的擬造世界之力（world-making forces）。本文主張楊牧文學創作所展現出來的以台灣為觀點的擬造世界實踐，或許有助於在世界文學殿堂裡尋覓到台灣文學的獨特發聲位置。
“World-making Forces in Taiwan Literature:
On Yang Mu’s Memories of Mount Qilai: The Education of a Young Poet”
This paper, through Yang Mu’s Memories of Mount Qilai, intends to examine how literary productions of the so-called peripheries engage in the discussions of world literature. Memories of Mount Qilai combines Yang Mu’s Moutain Wind and Ocean Rain, Return to Degree Zero, Long Ago, When We Started, three autobiographically-tinged collections of prose, and records in detail how the writer, through writing, reconstructs an amorphous medley of new knowledges and new experiences of exotic cultures he encountered as a child. The book also records how the writer, in his grown-up mature voice, makes his critical observations. From a narrative point of view, this book is by no means a retrospect that contemplates of things in the past; rather, it is a book that faces a future, a re-imagining and an expectation of a new horizon. Thus, it demonstrates an alternative notion of world literature as world-making forces, as defined by Pheng Cheah. This paper highlights the importance of the world-making practices in Yang Mu’s cosmopolitan writings, for it may help find a place for Taiwan in a map of the world literature.